In orthodontics, ligation method refers to the means by which an archwire is held inside the bracket. It can also be used to move the tooth in a particular direction depending on the type of ligature used and its method of ligation.
In general, metal or elastic ligatures are used for this purpose, and the way they are tied affected the tooth movement. As twin brackets have four tie wings, so wire can be tied to brackets in a variety of ways. Ligation ties play an important role not only in twin brackets (edgewise, MBT, and Roth) but also in different bracket prescriptions such as Begg, tip edge, and lingual orthodontics. In this review article, we will be discussing the various types of ligation techniques, their indication and contraindication as well as their application in orthodontics.
Classification of ligature ties
**** Based on material used:
-No ligation system.
****Based on the modes of tying archwire to the slot:
1) Basic ligation ties
a) Straight tie
b) Double tie
2) Isolated tie
3) Rotation tie
a) Circumferential tie
b) Anti-rotation tie
4) Extrusion tie
5) Stabilization tie
6) Double ligation tie
7) Tie together or figure of eight
c) Lace back tie
8) Kobayashi ties
**** No ligation system
Self-ligating brackets do not use any ligation method and can be divided into two main categories, active and passive, according to their mechanisms of closure. Active self-ligating brackets have a spring clip that stores energy to press against the archwire for rotation and torque control. On the other hand, passive self-ligating brackets usually have a slide that can be closed which does not encroach on the slot lumen, thus exerting no active force on the archwire.
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